IMPORTANT TERMS IN CYBER CRIME
- Backdoor: A backdoor in a computer system (or crypto system or algorithm) is a method of bypassing normal authentication, securing illegal remote access to a computer, obtaining access to plain text, and so on, while attempting to remain undetected. The backdoor may take the form of an installed program (e.g., Back Orifice) or may subvert the system through a
- Blackhat: It is used to describe ahacker (or, if you prefer, cracker) who breaks into a computer system or network with malicious intent. The black hat hacker takes advantage of the break-in, perhaps destroying files or stealing data for some future purpose. The black hat hacker may also make the exploit known to other hackers and/or the public without notifying the victim. This gives others the opportunity to exploit the vulnerability before the organization is able to secure it.
- Botnet: Abotnet is a collection of Internet-connected programs communicating with other similar programs in order to perform tasks. This can be as mundane as keeping control of an Internet Relay Chat (IRC) channel, or it could be used to send spam email or participate in distributed denial-of-service attacks. The word botnet is a portmanteau of robot and
- Cracker: A cracker is someone who breaks into someone else’s computer system, often on a network; bypasses passwords or licenses in computer programs; or in other ways intentionally breaches computer security. A cracker can be doing this for profit, maliciously, for some altruistic purpose or cause, or because the challenge is there.
- Phishing: Itis the act of attempting to acquire information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication. Communications purporting to be from popular social web sites, auction sites, banks, online payment processors or IT administrators are commonly used to lure unsuspecting public. Phishing emails may contain links to websites that are infected with
- Polymorphic Virus: A polymorphic virus is one that creates copies of itself, with variations in each copy to fool a virus detection program and user. The variations are typically different encryption methods in the virus file copies, which makes it more difficult for a virus detection program to detect and remove a polymorphic virus from a computer.
- Spam: Irrelevant or unsolicited messages sent over the Internet, typically to large numbers of users, for the purposes of advertising, phishing, spreading malware, etc.
- Spoofing: The word “spoof” means to hoax, trick, or deceive. Therefore, in the IT world, spoofing refers tricking or deceiving computer systems or other computer users. This is typically done by hiding one’s identity or faking the identity of another user on the Internet.
- Zombie Drone: Itis a computer connected to the Internet that has been compromised by a hacker, computer virus or Trojan horse and can be used to perform malicious tasks of one sort or another under remote direction. Botnets of zombie computers are often used to spread e-mail spam and launch denial-of-service attacks. Most owners of zombie computers are unaware that their system is being used in this way. Because the owner tends to be unaware, these computers are metaphorically compared to
- DDoS: A distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack is one in which a multitude of compromised systems attack a single target, thereby causingdenial of service for users of the targeted system. The flood of incoming messages to the target system essentially forces it to shut down, thereby denying service to the system to legitimate users.
- DOS: Short forDisk Operating System, is an acronym for several closely related operating systems that dominated the IBM PC compatible market between 1981 and 1995, or until about 2000 including the partially DOS-based Microsoft Windows versions 95, 98, and Millennium Edition.
- Trojan: ATrojan horse, or Trojan, is a non-self-replicating type of malware program containing malicious code that, when executed, carries out actions determined by the nature of the Trojan, typically causing loss or theft of data, and possible system harm.
- DNS Poisoning: DNS spoofing(or DNS cache poisoning) is a computer hacking attack, whereby data is introduced into a Domain Name System (DNS) name server’s cache database, causing the name server to return an incorrect IP address, diverting traffic to another computer (often the attacker’s).
- Email Spoofing: It is the forgery of an e-mail header so that the message appears to have originated from someone or somewhere other than the actual source. Distributors of spam often use spoofing in an attempt to get recipients to open, and possibly even respond to, their solicitations.
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